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全 面的二极管知识分享珍藏版1

二极管由管芯、管壳和两个电极构成。管芯就是一个PN结,在PN结的两端各引出一个引线,并用塑料、玻璃或金属材料作为封装外壳,就构成了晶体二极管,如下图所示。P区的引出的电极称为正极或阳极,N区的引出的电极称为负极或阴极。


二极管的伏安特性

bandaotierjiguandehexinshipnjie,tadetexingjiushipnjiedetexing——danxiangdaodianxing。changliyongfuantexingquxianlaixingxiangdimiaoshuerjiguandedanxiangdaodianxing。

六开采开奖现场报码 ruoyidianyaweihengzuobiao,dianliuweizongzuobiao,yongzuotufabadianya、dianliudeduiyingzhiyongpinghuadequxianlianjieqilai,jiugouchengerjiguandefuantexingquxian,ruxiatusuoshi(tuzhongxuxianweizheguandefuantexing,shixianweiguiguandefuantexing)。



下面对二极管伏安特性曲线加以说明:

1.正向特性

erjiguanliangduanjiazhengxiangdianyashi,jiuchanshengzhengxiangdianliu,dangzhengxiangdianyajiaoxiaoshi,zhengxiangdianliujixiao(jihuweiling),zheiyibufenchengweisiqu,xiangyingdea(a′)diandedianyachengweisiqudianyahuomenjiandianya(yechengyuzhidianya),guiguanyuewei0.5v,zheguanyuewei0.1v,rutuzhongoa(oa′)duan。

六开采开奖现场报码 dangzhengxiangdianyachaoguomenjiandianyashi,zhengxiangdianliujiuhuijijudizengda,erjiguanchengxianhenxiaodianzuerchuyudaotongzhuangtai。zheishiguiguandezhengxiangdaotongyajiangyuewei0.6~0.7v,zheguanyuewei0.2~0.3v,rutuzhongab(a′b′)duan。

六开采开奖现场报码 erjiguanzhengxiangdaotongshi,yaotebiezhuyitadezhengxiangdianliubunengchaoguo*dazhi,fouzejiangshaohuaipnjie。

2.反向特性

六开采开奖现场报码 erjiguanliangduanjiashangfanxiangdianyashi,zaikaishihendafanweinei,erjiguanxiangdangyufeichangdadedianzu,fanxiangdianliuhenxiao,qiebusuifanxiangdianyaerbianhua。cishidedianliuchengzhiweifanxiangbaohedianliuir,jiantuzhongoc(oc′)duan。

3.反向击穿特性

erjiguanfanxiangdianyajiadaoyidingshuzhishi,fanxiangdianliujijuzengda,zheizhongxianxiangchengweifanxiangjichuan。cishiduiyingdedianyachengweifanxiangjichuandianya,yongubrbiaoshi,rutu1.11zhongcd(c′d′)duan。

4.温度对特性的影响

youyuerjiguandehexinshiyigepnjie,tadedaodianxingnengyuwenduyouguan,wendushenggaoshierjiguanzhengxiangtexingquxianxiangzuoyidong,zhengxiangyajiangjianxiao;fanxiangtexingquxianxiangxiayidong,fanxiangdianliuzengda。

二极管的分类

一、按半导体材料分类

六开采开奖现场报码 erjiguananqishiyongdecailiaokefenweizhe(ge)erjiguan、gui(si)erjiguan、shenhuajia(gaas)erjiguan、linhuajia(gap)erjiguandeng。

二、按封装形式分类

erjiguananqifengzhuangxingshikefenweisuliaoerjiguan、bolierjiguan、jinshuerjiguan、pianzhuangerjiguan、wuyinxianyuanzhuxingerjiguan。

三、按结构分类

bandaotierjiguanzhuyaoshiyikaopnjieergongzuode。yupnjiebukefengededianjiechuxinghexiaotejixing,yebeilieruyibandeerjiguandefanweinei。baokuozheiliangzhongxinghaozainei,genjupnjiegouzaomiandetedian,bajingtierjiguanfenleiruxia:

1、点接触型二极管

dianjiechuxingerjiguanshizaizhehuoguicailiaodedanjingpianshangyachuyigenjinshuzhenhou,zaitongguodianliufaerxingchengde。yinci,qipnjiedejingdianrongliangxiao,shiyongyugaopindianlu。danshi,yumianjiexingxiangbijiao,dianjiechuxingerjiguanzhengxiangtexinghefanxiangtexingdoucha,yinci,bunengshiyongyudadianliuhezhengliu。yinweigouzaojiandan,suoyijiagebianyi。duiyuxiaoxinhaodejianbo、zhengliu、diaozhi、hunpinhexianfudengyibanyongtueryan,tashiyingyongfanweijiaoguangdeleixing。

2、键型二极管

jianxingerjiguanshizaizhehuoguidedanjingpianshangrongjiehuoyindexisierxingchengde。qitexingjieyudianjiechuxingerjiguanhehejinxingerjiguanzhijian。yudianjiechuxingxiangbijiao,suiranjianxingerjiguandepnjiedianrongliangshaoyouzengjia,danzhengxiangtexingtebieyouliang。duozuokaiguanyong,youshiyebeiyingyongyujianbohedianyuanzhengliu(budayu50ma)。zaijianxingerjiguanzhong,rongjiejinsideerjiguanyoushibeichengjinjianxing,rongjieyinsideerjiguanyoushibeichengweiyinjianxing。

3、合金型二极管

zainxingzhehuoguidedanjingpianshang,tongguohejinyin、lvdengjinshudefangfazhizuopnjieerxingchengde。zhengxiangdianyajiangxiao,shiyudadianliuzhengliu。yinqipnjiefanxiangshijingdianrongliangda,suoyibushiyugaopinjianbohegaopinzhengliu。

4、扩散型二极管

zaigaowendepxingzazhiqitizhong,jiarenxingzhehuoguidedanjingpian,shidanjingpianbiaomiandeyibubianchengpxing,yicifapnjie。yinpnjiezhengxiangdianyajiangxiao,shiyongyudadianliuzhengliu。*jin,shiyongdadianliuzhengliuqidezhuliuyiyouguihejinxingzhuanyidaoguikuosanxing。

5、台面型二极管

六开采开奖现场报码 pn jiedezhizuofangfasuiranyukuosanxingxiangtong,danshi,zhibaoliupnjiejiqibiyaodebufen,babubiyaodebufenyongyaopinfushidiao。qishengyudebufenbianchengxianchutaimianxing,yinerdeming。chuqishengchandetaimianxing,shiduibandaoticailiaoshiyongkuosanfaerzhichengde。yinci,youbazheizhongtaimianxingchengweikuosantaimianxing。duiyuzheiyileixinglaishuo,sihudadianliuzhengliuyongdechanpinxinghaohenshao,erxiaodianliukaiguanyongdechanpinxinghaoquehenduo。

6、平面型二极管

zaibandaotidanjingpian(zhuyaodishinxingguidanjingpian)shang,kuosanpxingzazhi,liyongguipianbiaomianyanghuamodepingbizuoyong,zainxingguidanjingpianshangjinxuanzexingdikuosanyibufenerxingchengdepnjie。yinci,buxuyaoweidiaozhengpnjiemianjideyaopinfushizuoyong。youyubandaotibiaomianbeizhizuodepingzheng,guerdeming。bingqie,pnjiehedebiaomian,yinbeiyanghuamofugai,suoyigongrenweishiwendingxinghaoheshoumingzhangdeleixing。*chu,duiyubeishiyongdebandaoticailiaoshicaiyongwaiyanfaxingchengde,guyoubapingmianxingchengweiwaiyanpingmianxing。duipingmianxingerjiguaneryan,sihushiyongyudadianliuzhengliuyongdexinghaohenshao,erzuoxiaodianliukaiguanyongdexinghaozehenduo。

7、合金扩散型二极管

tashihejinxingdeyizhong。hejincailiaoshirongyibeikuosandecailiao。bananyizhizuodecailiaotongguoqiaomiaodichanpeizazhi,jiunengyuhejinyiqiguokuosan,yibianzaiyijingxingchengdepnjiezhonghuodezazhideqiadangdenongdufenbu。cifashiyongyuzhizaogaolingmindudebianrongerjiguan。

8、外延型二极管

yongwaiyanmianzhangdeguochengzhizaopnjieerxingchengdeerjiguan。zhizaoshixuyaofeichanggaochaodejishu。yinnengsuiyidikongzhizazhidebutongnongdudefenbu,gushiyiyuzhizaogaolingmindudebianrongerjiguan。

9、肖特基二极管

jibenyuanlishi:zaijinshu(liruqian)hebandaoti(nxingguipian)dejiechumianshang,yongyixingchengdexiaotejilaizudangfanxiangdianya。xiaotejiyupnjiedezhengliuzuoyongyuanliyougenbenxingdechayi。qinaiyachengduzhiyou40vzuoyou。qitezhangshi:kaiguansudufeichangkuai:fanxianghuifushijiantrrtebiediduan。yinci,nengzhizuokaiguanerjihediyadadianliuzhengliuerjiguan。

四、按用途分类

1、检波用二极管

jianbozhuyaoshijianggaopinxinhaozhongdedipinxinhaojianchu,zheiyizuoyongjingchangyongyushouyinjizhong。

jiuyuanlieryan,congshuruxinhaozhongquchudiaozhixinhaoshijianbo,yizhengliudianliudedaxiao(100ma)zuoweijiexiantongchangbashuchudianliuxiaoyu100madejiaojianbo。zhecailiaodianjiechuxing、gongzuopinlvkeda400mhz,zhengxiangyajiangxiao,jiedianrongxiao,jianboxiaolvgao,pinlvtexinghao,wei2apxing。leisidianchuxingneiyangjianboyongdeerjiguan,chuyongyujianbowai,hainenggouyongyuxianfu、xuebo、diaozhi、hunpin、kaiguandengdianlu。yeyouweidiaopinjianbozhuanyongdetexingyizhixinghaodeliangzhierjiguanzuhejian。

2、整流用二极管

youyuerjiguanjuyoudanxiangdaodianxing,yincikejiangfangxiangjiaotibianhuandejiaoliudianzhuanhuanweidanyifangxiangdemaichongzhiliudian,wanchengzhengliudegongneng。

jiuyuanlieryan,congshurujiaoliuzhongdedaoshuchudezhiliushizhengliu。yizhengliudianliudedaxiao(100ma)zuoweijiexiantongchangbashuchudianliudayu100madejiaozhengliu。mianjiexing,gongzuopinlvxiaoyu khz,*gaofanxiangdianyacong25fuzhi3000fufena~xgong22dang。fenleiruxia:①guibandaotizhengliuerjiguan2czxing、②guiqiaoshizhengliuqiqlxing、③yongyudianshijigaoyaguiduigongzuopinlvjin100khzde2clgxing。

3、限幅用二极管

六开采开奖现场报码 youyuzaierjiguanliangduanjiazhengxiangdianyashiqidaotonghou,qizhengxiangyajiangjibenbaochibubian,yinciqizaidianluzhongkeyizuoweixianfuyuanjian,jiangxinhaodefuduxianzhizaiyidingdefanweinei。

daduoshuerjiguannengzuoweixianfushiyong。yeyouxiangbaohuyibiaoyonghegaopinqinaguanneiyangdezhuanyongxianfuerjiguan。weileshizheixieerjiguanjuyoutebieqiangdexianzhijianruizhenfudezuoyong,tongchangshiyongguicailiaozhizaodeerjiguan。yeyouzheiyangdezujianchushou:yijuxianzhidianyaxuyao,baruogangebiyaodezhengliuerjiguanchuanlianqilaixingchengyigezhengti。

六开采开奖现场报码 4、diaozhiyongerjiguan

tongchangzhideshihuanxingdiaozhizhuanyongdeerjiguan。jiushizhengxiangtexingyizhixinghaodesigeerjiguandezuhejian。jishiqitabianrongerjiguanyeyoudiaozhiyongtu,dantamentongchangshizhijiezuoweidiaopinyong。

5、混频用二极管

六开采开奖现场报码 shiyongerjiguanhunpinfangshishi,zai500~10,000hzdepinlvfanweinei,duocaiyongxiaotejixinghedianjiechuxingerjiguan。

6、放大用二极管

yongerjiguanfangda,dazhiyouyikaosuidaoerjiguanhetixiaoyingerjiguanneiyangdefuzuxingqijiandefangda,yijiyongbianrongerjiguandecanliangfangda。yinci,fangdayongerjiguantongchangshizhisuidaoerjiguan、tixiaoyingerjiguanhebianrongerjiguan。

7、开关用二极管

六开采开奖现场报码 youyuerjiguanjuyoudanxiangdaodianxing,zaizhengxiangdianyazuoyongxiadianzuhenxiao,xiangdangyutonglu,leisiyukaiguandakaizhuangtai;erzaifanxiangdianyazuoyongxiadianzuhenda,xiangdangyuduanlu,leisiyukaiguanbihezhuangtai。erjiguanjuyoudezheizhongkaiguantexing,shideqikeyizuchenggezhongluojidianlu。

youzaixiaodianliuxia(10machengdu)shiyongdeluojiyunsuanhezaishubaihaoanxiashiyongdecixinjiliyongkaiguanerjiguan。xiaodianliudekaiguanerjiguantongchangyoudianjiechuxinghejianxingdengerjiguan,yeyouzaigaowenxiahaikenenggongzuodeguikuosanxing、taimianxinghepingmianxingerjiguan。kaiguanerjiguandetezhangshikaiguansudukuai。erxiaotejixingerjiguandekaiguanshijianteduan,yinershilixiangdekaiguanerjiguan。2akxingdianjiechuweizhongsukaiguandianluyong;2ckxingpingmianjiechuweigaosukaiguandianluyong;yongyukaiguan、xianfu、qianweihuojianbodengdianlu;xiaoteji(sbd)guidadianliukaiguan,zhengxiangyajiangxiao,sudukuai、xiaolvgao。

8、变容二极管

六开采开奖现场报码 keyitongguoduiqishijiafanxiangdianyalaigaibianqipnjiedejingdianrongliang,congerdadaobianrongdegongneng,jingchangyudianshijigaopintoudepindaozhuanhuanhediaoxiedianlu。

六开采开奖现场报码 yongyuzidongpinlvkongzhi(afc)hediaoxieyongdexiaogonglverjiguanchengbianrongerjiguan。ribenchangshangfangmianyeyouqitaxuduojiaofa。tongguoshijiafanxiangdianya, shiqipnjiedejingdianrongliangfashengbianhua。yinci,beishiyongyuzidongpinlvkongzhi、saomiaozhendang、diaopinhediaoxiedengyongtu。tongchang,suiranshicaiyongguidekuosanxingerjiguan,danshiyekecaiyonghejinkuosanxing、waiyanjiehexing、shuangzhongkuosanxingdengteshuzhizuodeerjiguan,yinweizheixieerjiguanduiyudianyaeryan,qijingdianrongliangdebianhualvtebieda。jiedianrongsuifanxiangdianyavrbianhua,qudaikebiandianrong,yongzuodiaoxiehuilu、zhendangdianlu、suoxianghuanlu,changyongyudianshijigaopintoudepindaozhuanhuanhediaoxiedianlu,duoyiguicailiaozhizuo。

9、频率倍增用二极管

duierjiguandepinlvbeizengzuoyongeryan,youyikaobianrongerjiguandepinlvbeizengheyikaojieyue(jijibian)erjiguandepinlvbeizeng。pinlvbeizengyongdebianrongerjiguanchengweikebiandiankangqi,kebiandiankangqisuiranhezidongpinlvkongzhiyongdebianrongerjiguandegongzuoyuanlixiangtong,dandiankangqidegouzaoquenengchengshoudagonglv。jieyueerjiguanyoubeichengweijieyuehuifuerjiguan,congdaotongqiehuandaoguanbishidefanxianghuifushijiantrr duan,yinci,qitezhangshijisudibianchengguanbidezhuanyishijianxianzhudiduan。ruguoduijieyueerjiguanshijiazhengxianbo,neime,yintt(zhuanyishijian)duan,suoyishuchuboxingjizhoudibeijiaduan,gunengchanshenghenduogaopinxiebo。

10、稳压二极管

wenyaerjiguanshiyizhonggongzuoyufanxiangjichuanzhuangtaidemianjiexingguierjiguan,zaiwenyadianluzhongchuanruxianliudianzu,xianzhiwenyaerjiguanjichuanhoudianliuzhi,shideqijichuanzhuangtaikeyiyizhibaochixiaqu。

shidaitiwenyadianzierjiguandechanpin。beizhizuochengweiguidekuosanxinghuohejinxing。shifanxiangjichuantexingquxianjizhoubianhuadeerjiguan。zuoweikongzhidianyahebiaozhundianyashiyongerzhizuode。erjiguangongzuoshideduandianya(youchengqinadianya)cong3vzuoyoudao150v,anmeige10%,nenghuafenchengxuduodengji。zaigonglvfangmian,yeyoucong200mwzhi100wyishangdechanpin。gongzuozaifanxiangjichuanzhuangtai,guicailiaozhizuo,dongtaidianzurzhenxiao,yibanwei2cwxing;jianglianggehubuerjiguanfanxiangchuanjieyijianshaowenduxishuzewei2dwxing。

11、PIN型二极管(PIN Diode)

zheishizaipquhenquzhijianjiayicengbenzhengbandaoti(huodinongduzazhidebandaoti)gouzaodejingtierjiguan。pinzhongdeishi“benzheng”yiyideyingwenlveyu。dangqigongzuopinlvchaoguo100mhz shi,youyushaoshuzailiuzidecunzhuxiaoyinghe“benzheng”cengzhongdeduyueshijianxiaoying,qierjiguanshiquzhengliuzuoyongerbianchengzukangyuanjian,bingqie,qizukangzhisuipianzhidianyaergaibian。zailingpianzhihuozhiliufanxiangpianzhishi,“benzheng”qudezukanghengao;zaizhiliuzhengxiangpianzhishi,youyuzailiuzizhuru“benzheng”qu,ershi“benzheng”quchengxianchudizukangzhuangtai。yinci,keyibapinerjiguanzuoweikebianzukangyuanjianshiyong。tachangbeiyingyongyugaopinkaiguan(jiweibokaiguan)、yixiang、diaozhi、xianfudengdianluzhong。

12、雪崩二极管 (Avalanche Diode)

tashizaiwaijiadianyazuoyongxiakeyichanshenggaopinzhendangdejingtiguan。chanshenggaopinzhendangdegongzuoyuanlishiluande:liyongxuebengjichuanduijingtizhuruzailiuzi,yinzailiuziduyuejingpianxuyaoyidingdeshijian,suoyiqidianliuzhihouyudianya,chuxianyanchishijian,ruoshidangdikongzhiduyueshijian,neime,zaidianliuhedianyaguanxishangjiuhuichuxianfuzuxiaoying,congerchanshenggaopinzhendang。tachangbeiyingyongyuweibolingyudezhendangdianluzhong。

13、江崎二极管 (Tunnel Diode)

六开采开奖现场报码 tashiyisuidaoxiaoyingdianliuweizhuyaodianliufenliangdejingtierjiguan。qijidicailiaoshishenhuajiahezhe。qipxingqudenxingqushigaochanzade(jigaonongduzazhide)。suidaodianliuyouzheixiejianbingtaibandaotideliangzilixuexiaoyingsuochansheng。fashengsuidaoxiaoyingjubeiruxiasangetiaojian:①feiminengjiweiyudaodaihemandainei;②kongjiandianhecengkuandubixuhenzhai(0.01weimiyixia);jianbingbandaotipxingquhenxingquzhongdekongxuehedianzizaitongyinengjishangyoujiaodiedekenengxing。jiangqierjiguanweishuangduanziyouyuanqijian。qizhuyaocanshuyoufenggudianliubi(ip/pv),qizhong,xiabiao“p”daibiao“feng”;erxiabiao “v”daibiao“gu”。jiangqierjiguankeyibeiyingyongyudizaoshenggaopinfangdaqijigaopinzhendangqizhong(qigongzuopinlvkedahaomiboduan),yekeyibeiyingyongyugaosukaiguandianluzhong。



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